Pakistan political history | Birth to Present | The Uncertain Politics

Updated: Jun 11

In the Pakistan political history of all hitherto, Pakistan's political domain has remained amid a potent dilemma. Historically before the separation of the subcontinent, the political dilemma was present there. Moreover, Muslims, Hindus, and British had been bound in the chain of political turmoil. Along with social, economic, and educational differences, political issues were in an abysmal state.



Pakistan political history

Consequently, from the War of Independence 1857 to the Third June Plan, Muslim leaders played a pivotal role in the creation of a new state: Pakistan. As far as, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and Liaquat Ali Khan were the frontline Leaders in the establishment of Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan and Quaid-e-Azam became the first Prime Minister and Governor-General of Pakistan respectively.


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Early death of Quaid-e-Azam made future precarious - Pakistan political history.

After its inception, the political dilemma of Pakistan rises in a real sense.The death of the Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a major threat to Pakistan's political domain. This happened on 11th September 1948. It had adverse impacts on the stability of the politics of the new state. The death of Quaid had a devastating effect on the Pakistani people, who believed that their father had died and that they had now become orphans. They had lost all hope of constructing a great country because they had lost their guts. They believed they wouldn't be able to make Pakistan powerful without him. The nation's eyes welled up with tears as they mourned the loss of their beloved leader. Similarly, the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, further paved the way for the destruction of the state's political and economic sectors. This incident happened on 16th October 1951 in Rawalpindi's bagh. As a result, Pakistan took Nine years for an effective constitution. Moreover, the social, political, economic, and educational systems went into the depth of the crisis.


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Swaying political uncertainty hindered constitutional progress - Pakistan political history:

Furthermore, the abrogation of the first constitution in 1956 by Iskandar Mirza boosted the real political dilemma in the history of Pakistan. He dissolved the National and Provincial Assemblies. Chaudhary Muhammad Ali was appointed as the Prime Minister of Pakistan after Liaquat Ali Khan. On 9th January 1956, the draft of this constitution was introduced in the Assembly. It passed on February 29, 1956. It took effect on 23rd March 1956 in the state. Afterward, Iskandar Mirza imposed Martial Law on 7th October 1958 just after the two years. He appointed General Muhammad Ayub Khan as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. Besides these, there were various loopholes in the first constitution of Pakistan. General elections were not held which were the main features of any democracy. Masses of the state lost their faith due to corruption, political instability, and economic deterioration. Furthermore, electoral issues were present there in the form of a separate and joint electorate. Hence, these were the main causes of the downfall of the constitution.


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Ayub Khan - Pakistan political history:

The consecutive abrogation of the second constitution, after the constitution of 1956, was also another turning point toward a political dilemma. The second constitution took place in 1962. It was promulgated by President Ayub on First March 1962 and finally came into effect on 8th June 1962. Moreover, the constitution had been abrogated on 25th February 1969 by Yahya Khan. General Yahya Khan was the head of the second military regime. For the first time in Pakistan's history was the general elections of 1970 held based on the Adult Franchise. It has abrogated owing to multiple joint causes. Firstly, It is a fact that the whole power belonged to a single person- General Ayub khan. It was one of the major causes. Secondly, East Pakistan was against Provincial Autonomy. Thirdly, the name of the state was changed from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the Republic of Pakistan.



Undeniably, from 1958 to 1971 President Ayub Khan, through autocratic rule, was able to centralize the government without the inconvenience of unstable ministerial coalitions. Consequently, the partition of East Pakistan in 1971 is one of the major political dilemmas in this regard. Bangladesh was considered Ayub Khan the ruler of the Punjabi-dominated Army. Owing to issues in Provincial Autonomy and politically deprived Bangladesh, East Pakistan became separate from West Pakistan. Similarly, there was the dynamic leadership of Z. A. Bhutto, Asghar Khan, Mujeeb, and Bhashani in the form of opposition leaders.



Currently, the political system of Pakistan is working on the 1973 constitution. This constitution was drafted by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's government with additional support from opposition parties of the state. It was adopted by Parliament on April 10 and ratified on August 14, 1973. The Constitution is designed and framed to guide Pakistan's law and order, social, political, and economic system.



The Charismatic “Bhutto” – Legacy and his end in the hand of authoritarians - Pakistan political history :

The 1973 constitution created giant concessions to the non-Punjabi provinces and provided the blueprint for a social group that supported the appearance of a national consensus. However, Bhutto didn't implement the federal provisions of the constitution. He relied on the powerful arm of the state to snuff out political opposition and by neglecting to create the surgery as a very common national party. The gap between his popular rhetoric and therefore the marginal successes of his somewhat haphazard economic reforms prevented Bhutto from consolidating a social base of support. Thus, despite a brief loss of face in 1971 the civil bureaucracy and therefore the army remained the foremost necessary pillars of the state structure, rather than the voters of Pakistan who were still troubled to be recognized within the democratic process. Though Bhutto's surgery won the 1977 elections, the Pakistan National Alliance-a nine-party coalition-charged him with rigging the vote. Violent urban unrest gave the military beneath General Zia-ul Haq the pretext to create a strong comeback to the political arena, and on Gregorian calendar month 5, 1977 Pakistan was placed under military rule all over again and the 1973 Constitution was suspended.



"As shown by the Walk 18, 1978 ask for the Lahore High Court, you, Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, are to be hanged for the crime of Nawab Mohammad Ahmad Khan, "read the request. "Your allure in the High Court was dismissed on February 6, 1979, and the audit appeal was turned down on Walk 24, 1979. The leader of Pakistan has chosen not to meddle in this. So hanging you has been chosen.


Tragic Zia’s Death - Pakistan political history

The President of Pakistan was killed on August 17, 1988, by a C130 Hercules aircraft that crashed near the Sutlej River. There are several conspiracy theories surrounding the incident, as other high-ranking civilians and military personnel also died in the crash. The crash also included Joint Prime Minister Aktar Abdul Lehmann, US Ambassador to Pakistan Arnold Lewis Rapell, and the military Attaché Brigadier. General Herbert M. Wassam.



Coups back in game – General Pervez Musharraf:

General Musharraf's military coup in October 1999 once again raised questions about the future of democracy in Pakistan. The death of General Zia-ul-Haq in 1988 and subsequent governments that came to power through elections gave hope that Pakistan had taken the first steps towards establishing a democratic order, although the military pushed governments out of the back seat. This hope seemed to be confirmed when the Nawaz Sharif government took office with a two-thirds majority. However, the October 1999 military coup demonstrated the weakness of Pakistan's democratic experiment. Democracy has not been able to take root in Pakistan due to weak political institutions and its deeply feudal structure. Even if the political process is restored by the military regime, it will take several decades for democracy to take firm root in Pakistan.


Benazir Bhutto - Pakistan political history :

In the country's checkered history, the assassination of Benazir Bhutto is also one of the burning dilemmas in Pakistan's politics. Bhutto led the foundation of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) to victory in the 1993 election after Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's IJI government was also dismissed on suspicion of corruption. In her second term, she oversaw economic privatization and sought to promote women's rights. Furthermore, her government was hurt by several controversies, including the assassination of her brother Murtaza Bhutto, a failed 1995 coup, and another bribery scandal involving her and her husband Asif Ali Zardari. Resultantly, President Farooq Leghari abolished his government. PPP was defeated in the 1997 elections, went into exile in 1998, and lived between Dubai and London for the next 10 years. An expanding corruption investigation was convicted in a Swiss court in 2003. After US-mediated negotiations with President Pervez Musharraf, she returned to Pakistan in 2007 to contest the 2008 elections. Their platform emphasized civilian surveillance of the military and resistance to increasing Islamic violence. She was killed after a political rally in Rawalpindi. Salafi jihadist group al-Qaeda claimed responsibility but was widely suspected of involving fraudulent elements in Pakistan's Taliban and intelligence communities. She was buried in the mausoleum of her family in Garhi Khuda Baksh.


Bhutto is a controversial figure and continues to divide to this day. She was often criticized for her political inexperience, accused of corruption, and faced a lot of opposition from the Pakistani Muslim lobby because of her secular and modernized agenda. However, early in her career, she was also popular in the country and received support from Western countries who were advocates of democracy. After her death, she was regarded as a symbol of women's rights due to her political success in a male-dominated society.



The dilemma of Imran Khan - Pakistan political history :

In the current scenario, the political clashes among parties are the burning issue that is throwing the state into the corner of destruction. It started when the Chairman of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf came into power in 2018 after 22 years. He served the country as the 22nd Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan from August 2018 to April 2022. Unfortunately, Imran Khan was removed from the status of prime minister after getting a no-confidence motion in the parliament. Khan aimed to make Pakistan on the principles of Riyasat-e-Madina. He promised a "New Pakistan '' along with curtailing corruption, boosting the economy, and imposing independent foreign Policies. Furthermore, according to the critics, he failed to accomplish his promises that's why his government was brought down with a no-confidence vote in the parliament. According to the recent reports, there are manifold responsible factors connected to the removal of former Prime Minister Imran khan. Firstly, it has been considered that America has played a responsible role, hand in hand with the opposition, in removing the Khan. The core concept behind is that "Imran Khan doesn't want to become the slave of any supper power Country-America."


The new incumbent setup of Shehbaz Sharif is in Catch-22 situation - Pakistan political history :

Currently, Shehbaz Sharif has been serving as the 23rd Prime Minister of Pakistan since 11 April 2022 after Imran khan. There is no denying the fact that Pakistan's new government is facing a lot of social, political, economic, and educational issues. The inflation rate is increasing by leaps and bounds. The energy sectors including petroleum, gaseous, and electricity are in the chunk of unbearable inflation rates. The hike in Petrol prices is considered unacceptable and brutal by the public. Economists call it an "unavoidable adjustment". By and large, it can be propounded by the fact that Pakistan's history is flooded with political chaos till the current scenario.

Conclusion of Pakistan political history :

Pakistan political history had remained in the unsolved dilemma throughout the history; where the political authority kept swinging with uncertainty: from dictators to controversial political leadership.


Conclusion:

Pakistan political history had remained in the unsolved dilemma throughout the time; where the political authority kept swinging with uncertainty: from dictators to controversial political leadership.