In the wake of industrialization, natural disasters are intensifying rapidly, exhibiting their adverse effects daily. However, these manifold repercussions are not vague from the globe. Natural disasters are natural phenomena that cause extensive damage to the lives and properties of the masses. The countries are experiencing innumerable consequences in the form of floods, droughts, monsoons, tsunamis, and heavy earthquakes. As a result of these impacts, environmental devastation becomes the fate of the countries through destroying millions of masses, livestock, and infrastructure of the regions and states every year. It threatens not only human beings but also plants and animals to suffer harshly.
Similarly, natural catastrophes are considered a looming threat to the regional economy. Nevertheless, Third world countries like Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and India, are on the verge of natural disasters. Owing to climate change and bourgeois global warming, natural disasters are becoming more severe and common around the globe. For that reason, the state must be prepared to deal with the catastrophes of natural disasters. However, it is amid various social, environmental, technological, economic, and political joint causes that need stringent remedial measures on national as well as international levels to abate the consequences of the natural threats.
Ingredients of Natural Disasters:
It is an undeniable reality that natural disasters hit the country in different forms. Furthermore, it includes hydrological, geological, meteorological, wildfires, and space disasters. Firstly, geological disasters are volcanic eruptions, landslides, sinkholes, and earthquakes. These pose innumerable threats to the very pace of the environment. Secondly, the primary hydrological disasters are floods, tsunamis, and eruptions. However, floods are becoming more common in this contemporary globe. Thirdly, meteorological threats are considered heat waves, cyclonic storms, thunderstorms, and droughts. Fourthly, wildfires see natural disasters that occur naturally owing to lightning and humans.
Lastly and importantly, space disasters put adverse impacts on the environment. These are included in events of asteroids, meteors, and solar flares. Furthermore, space disasters can hit Earth anytime by crossing meteors and asteroids near the Earth. Similarly, the sun emits a lot of solar radiation, a looming threat to electrical appliances.
The states are grappling with the devastating flood. Historically as well as currently, owing to natural disasters. Heavy rainfalls mainly cause floods. Furthermore, bad governance is responsible for intensifying floods as they cannot build dams and emergency teams. As in the case of Covid-19, the states were unprepared to deal with the pandemic. Similarly, if the same case is applied to natural disasters, surely it will deteriorate the social, political, economic and agricultural sectors during heavy floods. Furthermore, heatwaves, glacial melt and poor disaster management are the leading causes of floods.
Floods and Pakistan:
For instance, Pakistan is undoubtedly experiencing its worst threat regarding floods. History is evident as Pakistan faced the worst floods in 1992, 2010-deadliest floods, 201, and 2012 destroying innumerable masses and infrastructure. Currently, Pakistan is amid extreme floods due to the heavy rains. According to the analysis, flash floods have displaced about 33 million people. It killed nearly 1200 people and injured about 3500 people from June to August of the current year. As far as infrastructure is concerned, at least 1 million homes are destroyed, and 5500 roads, bridges, and furniture have been damaged. Consequently, the widening gap in Gross Domestic Product(GDP) between March and August is a matter of concern as there is a decrease of 4 percent in August due to floods and heavy rainfalls.
One of the major ingredients, the earthquake, is the worst catastrophe for the environment.
However, it is caused due to the movements of the plates under the surface of the Earth. Similarly, the movement of the shaking of the Earth damages property and many lives. The Haiyuan in China earthquake in 1920 killed more than 270,000 people. Similarly, In 1976 an earthquake played havoc in Tangshan in China, killing almost 240,000 people. Furthermore, the Earthquake in Kashmir, Pakistan, destroyed almost 80,000 lives in 2005. Also, the earthquake in Haiti in 2010 caused massive fatalities of between 100,000 and 300,000.
Hence, it is concluded that earthquakes are one of the major confrontations to the countries.
Undeniably, forest fires are also rapidly enhancing owing to nature or because of human activities. On the one hand, naturally, fires are caused by lightning. On the other hand, humans also play a responsible role in causing fires. Consequently, forest fires increase global temperature, impacting climate change vigorously.
Joint Causes of Natural Disasters
Natural activities, undeniably, are one of the major causes of natural disasters. These all happened under the Earth's crust. These activities produce stresses and complexities in the Earth's crust and lead to severe earthquakes.
Deforestation is destroying trees and forests that have adverse implications on the environment owing to variations in natural patterns. It can be said that deforestation is one of the leading causes of severe natural disasters.
The benefits of forests are to stave off floods. Furthermore, burgeoning deforestation does not contribute to the prevention of floods and rainwater. As a result, floods and droughts intensify drastically.
Soil erosion plays a responsible role in enhancing environmental degradation and natural threats. It causes high destruction of lands. Moreover, the loss of fertility of lands. And production rate increases owing to soil erosion. However, it is one of the looming threats to those regional populations that mostly depend upon the agricultural sectors. Similarly, landslides can be caused by soil erosion that badly impacts humans, animals, and plants.
The strong influence of the moon preprocesses the h is the major cause of natural disasters. Surprisingly, according to various types of research, it is concluded that the moon's attraction has been verified as one of the primary causes of earthquakes. The impacts of earthquakes can be observed worldwide in infrastructure and mass destruction.
Impacts of Natural Disasters:
The impacts of natural disasters are becoming more and more severe nowadays. The unfavorable impacts can be seen in various destructive elements like environmental degradation, humanitarian crisis, floods, droughts, earthquakes, and tsunamis. However, these factors play a crucial role in environmental degradation, social damage, economic downturn, and mass destruction.
There is no denying the fact that there are extreme consequences of natural cataclysms on the whole environmental system and stability.
Harsh hurricanes and other storms can demolish the lives and livelihoods of considerable masses. Particularly, tsunamis pose looming threats to the coastal masses.
The migration of masses from unfavorable places to safe places is increasing day by day. Moreover, droughts may cause the migration of multiple populace. Owing to a water shortage, they could not grow plants and cattle. Furthermore, natural catastrophes have not only panoramic effects on humans but also devastate the habitat of numerous animals and plants.
Consequently, the humanitarian crisis is one of the manifold impacts of natural disasters affecting the globe. Nevertheless, the humanitarian crisis includes an enhancement in famine, food crises, water crises, spreading of pandemic diseases like Covid-19 and Malaria. Similarly, developing countries like Pakistan are experiencing the worst impacts of natural disasters. The poor countries cannot fight and abate the consequences of natural threats owing to improper resources and developing technology. Historically, natural disasters have destroyed many masses, animals, and countries' infrastructure.
Unfortunately, thousands of people migrate owing to natural disasters that lead to humanitarian emergencies. They migrate to other states in search of proper food and shelter. However, according to various researchers, it is estimated that more than 143 million masses may be displaced owing to climate change by 2050 in just three areas of the world, including South Asia, unless various remedial measures are taken, on national and international levels, in the future to abate the consequences of natural disasters.
Gender discrimination and Inequality
Scientists have researched that gender discrimination increases up to uncertain levels due to natural disasters. Furthermore, in this dilemma, women and children suffer more than men due to floods, earthquakes, and heat waves. However, disasters don't discriminate; nevertheless, their consequences do. Considering the disaster mortality rate, women are disproportionately affected and, in rare cases, up to nine times more likely to die. Similarly, the gendered effect of catastrophes is context detailed and connects to the overall gender unevenness situation in society. It is vital to have sex and age disaggregated databases available in disasters to know who is affected more.
Destruction of Infrastructure
Owing to natural constraints, infrastructure has been destroyed vitally. Nevertheless, disaster resilient infrastructure incorporates large buildings and towers, public cooperative facilities, transit procedures, proper telecommunications, power systems, and energy sectors that are strategically made to withstand the consequence of a natural disaster like a flood, earthquake, or wildfire. Furthermore, the figures are intensifying: immediate deterioration to power and transport sectors and systems from natural tragedies worth about $18 billion yearly across LMICs. Similarly, across-the-board disruption to infrastructure varies from $391 billion to $647 billion a year for households and corporations in the same areas.
First and foremost, economic losses are on the verge of natural disasters. The World Bank(WB) estimates that disasters cost the global economic cost of $520 billion yearly while propelling 26 million masses into abject poverty. In the same way, since the Sendai Framework was taken on, some 60 million populace in over 100 states have been displaced by catastrophe occurrences, including floods, storms, and droughts. Unfortunately, the lands are severely devastated. The masses that depend upon agriculture are affected badly due to damage to large fertile land areas and crop threats. Also, the masses will lose their habitat due to natural disasters. Consequently, third-world countries, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, suffer greatly more than the developed countries. Hence, remedial measures must be taken to abate the threats of natural disasters.
Their habitat and belongings, including their homes and resources, are being lost due to natural disasters. As a result, they are displaced from one region to another for better shelter and food. In this condition, the state's responsibility is to protect the household and the lives of the concerned masses.
Solutions to Stave off the Natural Disaster:
Emergency Measures and Good Governance
It is a fact that the states cannot entirely utter the occurrence of natural disasters. However, the government must take effective measures to lessen the consequences of natural catastrophes. Furthermore, it can be done through the government to establish emergency plans and measures to shake off the threats. Moreover, economic vitality is crucial to face the dilemma so that funds must be released to the affected people. Also, national and international participation is imperative to cope with climate emergencies.
Emergency plans simply depict persuasive early alarm techniques that notify the public to search for shelter and food before natural cataclysms hit. In the same way, the medical facilities have to be ensured against natural emergencies so that injured masses will be able to get medical aid.
Hence, emergency measures are crucial in coping with the adverse effects of natural disasters.
The process of deforestation must be replaced with reforestation because it is said that forests and trees are the oxygen for human beings. Hence, the government must be accountable for enhancing reforestation nationwide to stop natural disasters.
Economic support to the affected masses and Countries
It would not be an exaggeration to depict that economic support is imperative to the masses and the states. International organizations must issue relief funds for the affected state to face the situation. On the other hand, the states' responsibility is that they should stand with the people.
Effective Role of Media
Independent media, undeniably, is considered a watchdog. It spreads and disseminates social, political, economic, environmental, and agricultural information. Hence, it is the accountability of the media to spread awareness about the climate crisis as people prepare themselves for future catastrophic threats.
By and Large, natural disasters are the looming threats that adversely impact the masses and the country's peace and prosperity. However, multiple responsible drivers of natural disasters are mentioned above that need to be curtailed on national and international levels. Consequently, this threat has various negative impacts on the social, economic, political, environmental, and agricultural sectors. Furthermore, multiple effective measures must be taken to cope with natural disasters.